Commandlib is a dependencyless library for calling external UNIX commands (e.g. in build scripts) in a clean, readable way.
For simplicity’s sake, the library itself only runs commands in a blocking way (all commands run to completion before continuing), although it contains hooks to run non-blocking via either icommandlib or pexpect.
# Pretend django "manage.py" that just prints out arguments: import sys ; sys.stdout.write(' '.join(sys.argv[1:]))
from commandlib import Command # Create base command python = Command("python") # Create command "python manage.py" that runs in the django directory manage = python("manage.py").in_dir("django") # Build even more specific command dev_manage = manage.with_trailing_args("--settings", "local_settings.py")
# Run combined command dev_manage("runserver", "8080").run()
runserver 8080 --settings local_settings.py
$ pip install commandlib
- Run commmands interactively using icommandlib or pexpect
- Easily invoke commands from one directory (CommandPath)
- Easily invoke commands from the current virtualenv (python_bin)
- Add directory to PATH (with_path)
- Piping data in from string or file (.piped)
- Capture output (.output())
- Piping data out to string or file (.piped)
- Run command and don’t raise exception on nonzero exit code (ignore_errors())
- Change your command’s environment variables (with_env)
Commandlib avoids the tangle of messy code that you would get using the subprocess library directly (Popen, call, check_output(), .communicate(), etc.) and the confusion that results.
It’s a heavily dogfooded library. For humans. Because who else?
Is subprocess really that bad?
The code will likely be longer and messier. For example, from stack overflow:
import subprocess, os previous_directory = os.getcwd() os.chdir("command_directory") my_env = os.environ.copy() my_env["PATH"] = "/usr/sbin:/sbin:" + my_env["PATH"] subprocess.Popen(my_command, env=my_env) os.chdir(previous_directory)
from commandlib import Command Command(my_command).with_path("/usr/sbin:/sbin:").in_dir("command_directory").run()
Why not use Delegator instead (Kenneth Reitz’s ‘subprocesses for humans’)?
Kenneth Reitz (author of requests “urllib2/3 for humans”), wrote a similarly inspired “subprocess for humans” called envoy. That is now deprecated and there is now a replacement called delegator, which is a very thin wrapper around subprocess.
Features delegator has which commandlib does not:
Delegator can chain commands, much like bash does (delegator.chain(‘fortune | cowsay’)). Commandlib doesn’t do that because while dogfooding the library I never encountered a use case where I found this to be necessary. You can, however, easily get the output of one command using .output() as a string and feed it into another using piped.from_string(string).
Delegator runs subprocesses in both a blocking and nonblocking way (using pexpect). commandlib only does blocking by itself but if you pip install pexpect or icommandlib it can run via either one of them.
Runs on windows
Features which both have:
- Ability to set environment variables.
- Ability to run pexpect process from command object.
Features which only commandlib has:
- Ability to set PATH easily.
- Ability call code from within the current virtualenv easily.
- Ability to pipe in strings or files and easily pipe out to strings or file (or file handles).
- Hook to easily run commands in from the current virtualenv.
Why not use other tools?
os.system(*) - only capable of running very simple bash commands.
sh - uses a lot of magic. Attempts to make python more like shell rather than making running commands more pythonic.
plumbum - similar to amoffat’s sh, tries to make a sort of “bash inside python”. Also has a weird way of building commands from dict syntax (grep[“-v”, “\.py”]).